Greek has four cases, which means that three parts of speech – pronouns, nouns, and articles – each have up to four forms, depending on how they are used in a sentence.


Subject Pronouns

Subject pronouns, literally called “nominative personal pronouns” in Greek, indicate who or what is performing the action of a verb.



A diphthong is a combination of two vowel sounds in a single syllable. In Greek, they may be written with an umlaut on the second vowel or an acute accent on the first vowel.


Greek has two different accents: acute (ί) and umlaut (ϊ). The acute accent is far more common and has two main uses.


Greek has seven vowels (letters) for just four vowel sounds. There are also eight double vowels: one creates a fifth vowel sound, four are alternate spellings for regular vowels, and three make a vowel + consonant sound.


Greek has 17 consonants (letters), most of which are similar to English sounds. There are also six double consonants.


The Greek alphabet has 24 letters. Some have no real English counterpart, and several have misleading English names.