Greek has four cases, which means that three parts of speech – pronouns, nouns, and articles – each have up to four forms, depending on how they are used in a sentence.

Definite Article

The Greek definite article has different forms depending on the gender, number, and case of its noun.


Greek has three genders, and because it’s a case language, knowing the gender of every noun is vital. Articles and adjectives have different forms to agree with the gender of their nouns, and there are also different forms for each case the noun is used in – which means many more opportunities to make mistakes.

Nominative Case

Also known as the “naming case,” the nominative is the case needed for nouns and pronouns that serves as either the subject or subject complement.

Subject Pronouns

Subject pronouns, literally called “nominative personal pronouns” in Greek, indicate who or what is performing the action of a verb.