Προσωπικές αντωνυμίες ονομαστικές ??
Subject pronouns, literally called "nominative personal pronouns" in Greek, indicate who or what is performing the action of a verb. The different subject pronouns are determined by number and person.
- Number is divided into “singular” (one) and “plural” (more than one).
- Person includes “first person” (the speaker), “second person” (the listener), and “third person” (neither the speaker nor the listener).
Thus with two numbers and three persons, Greek has a total of six grammatical persons and six verb conjugations. Each grammatical person has up to three subject pronouns:
|3rd person||he, it||αυτός||they||αυτοί|
Unlike "I," εγώ is only capitalized at the beginning of a sentence.
There are two Greek words for "you" (exactly like the French words for “you”): εσύ is singular and informal (like tu), while εσείς is plural and / or formal (like vous).
In addition to "he" and "she," αυτός and αυτή mean “it” when they replace a noun of that gender, so ο καιρός (the weather) becomes αυτός and η ώρα (the hour) becomes αυτή.
As for third person plural,
- Αυτοί is used for men, masculine nouns, and mixed gender groups – it is the default when referring to plural groups.
- Αυτές can be used only for a group of women and/or feminine nouns.
- Likewise, αυτά can be used only for a group of neuter nouns.
Greek subject pronouns are used far less commonly than their English equivalents because Greek (like Spanish) is a "pro-drop" language, meaning that pronouns are not required**: the verb conjugation tells you who or what is performing the action of the verb.
** In fact, my Greek teachers insist that I not use them unless I need to stress the subject, such as to contradict what someone just said.
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